Lolz...nobody can beat the Indians in there amazing trail of scientific failures from missiles to nuclear to space mission! They are really good at it! =P
India’s first steps in its journey to the Earth’s satellite with its maiden mission Chandrayaan-1, India's first moon mission appears to have reached a sudden end with The indian Space Research Organisation ISRO lost any further contacts.
Mylswamy Annadurai, project director of Chandrayaan I, told "The mission is definitely over. We have lost contact with the spacecraft,”
Chandrayaan, launched on 22 October, dumped outside the moon orbit or crashed on its surface, ahead of its intended two-year mission of orbiting the moon, after the star sensors—that guide the spacecraft to the moon’s surface—failed.
Chandrayaan, which was launched on October 22 last year amid much fanfare, was designed for a two-year mission in space. It had completed 312 days in space, and more than 3,400 orbits of the moon, before falling silent about 4 lakh kilometres away from the earth.
Lolz...nobody can beat the Indians in there amazing trail of scientific failures from missiles to nuclear to space mission! They are really good at it! =P
miri , woh tu sab theek hai magar yeh picture kiski hai ? Indians ki ya phir .......................
^^ Good Q...humpak whose the witch??
akalmandoo, Indians ke pass moon per jane ka wahid solution yehi Broom aur ye witch hai
ANNOKHA LAADLA KHELAN KO MANGEY CHAAND
That’s the last survivor from last week’s failed Indian moon mission Chandrayaan I.
Before anyone calls me a jealous Pakistani, let me say that it is an impressive feat for a developing nation and one that has the world’s largest concentration of poverty to launch space expeditions. It proves that the Anglo-Saxons don’t have a monopoly over talent and hard work. It is instructive that India’s last colonizers, the Brits, are yet to send any craft to space. Britain’s last meaningful contact with space was when many Brits thronged to movie houses to watch the space thriller Armageddon a decade ago.
So it takes courage, determination and vision to plan space missions. And the Indians did it last October when they placed their space craft in moon’s orbit. As talented, hardworking people, their neighbors to the west, the Pakistanis, too are working on a space program. In fact, it is one of the best-kept secrets in a country that is not very good at keeping them.
But unlike India, Pakistan has no delusions of grandeur and it is not preparing for future interstellar domination warfare. Pakistan’s concerns are modest: communications, business and research.
That’s in fact where the Indians started too before vanity took over along with the desire of a small group of hawks in New Delhi to become the next superpower. To be fair, most Indians are smart people and have better things to do than play superpower games. The idea of India playing this game was actually pumped into Indian mind by some hawkish Americans, Brits, Aussies and Israelis during the warrior reign of Bush-Cheney. That’s when some knuckleheads in Washington convinced some Indians that an India-Israel-America axis could actually change the world for good [with the Brits, Canadians and Aussies thrown in to give this whole thing an 'international' look].
The ‘recruitment’ of India was a joint Am-Brit idea, a combination of a desire to sell weapons, irritate China, and secure India as a future source of cheap soldiers to fight the Am-Brit dirty wars from the Red Sea to China to the shores of Sydney.
The failed moon mission, Chandrayaan I, is a good example of where India went wrong. The $82 million mission was assigned the task of mapping moon’s surface so that Indian scientists could prepare for sending a manned mission to the moon by 2013.
The craft lasted in space less than a year before Indian scientists lost all contact. Mission aborted and expensive equipment lost. To understand that vanity was a large undeclared part of this space mission, just see the reactions of Indian officials after the embarrassing news.
Most Indian officials initially said it’s not a big deal, the craft was supposed to map moon’s surface and that’s already been done. Another official said some 80,000 images have already been sent by the craft to earth. A third official said the ship would have been of no use beyond this point even if it continued to fly for the whole two years.
And then the entire Indian media went silent on the story. No discussion, no write-ups, and no questions. To me it seemed eerily similar to the free Indian media’s attitude on the Kashmir dispute: Uniformity across the Indian media and a strict adherence to the official Indian policy line, as if by government order, compared to the noisy and vibrant discussions in the Pakistani media often to the extent of ridiculing official Pakistani position on Kashmir.
It was obvious someone ordered the Indian media not to discuss the failed Indian moon mission ‘in national interest.’
The question that no one in India asked is this: Why map the moon surface? How would sending an Indian to the moon five years from now solve anything? And how about solving India’s mammoth developmental problems here, on earth, where most of the billion or so Indians continue to live?
The Indians, in their quest for projecting the superpower image that the Bush-Cheney people fed them before leaving for the dustbin of history refuse even to acknowledge they have a huge poverty problem that pales in comparison to the problems of any other nation on the planet.
Here is an example of Indian denial:
Last year, Kumar Malhotra of BBC wrote that in 2006 UNICEF has registered the death of 2.5 million children under five in two countries: India and China.
India’s share of these deaths was a staggering 2.1 million. And China has more population than India.
This is the highest figure of child deaths anywhere in the world, and they happen because of lack of services and healthcare because India is busy becoming a superpower, beating China in military hardware and sending bungled space missions.
This year, the UNDP India poverty report for 2009 began with this sobering assessment: “India has a high incidence of poverty despite being hailed as an engine of growth and instrument of globalization.”
Mr. Malhotra complains that ‘When you talk to officials and experts in India, they say poverty in is in decline.’
India is ready to spend $82 million on vanity space missions and billions more on weapons [it recently purchased old refurbished Russian aircraft carriers], but won’t spend that money on the single largest concentration of poor people on earth, in Indian villages and cities.
The Indians hide these facts from the international audience. And the reality comes out in the open only when an adventurist British film director decides to portray Indian poverty in Slumdog Millionnaire. The film initially upset many Indians who thought someone created a hole in the Incredible India story.
Here is what India’s government needs to understand: You can’t buy your way to superpower status. What nation in history achieved this status by buying refurbished aircraft carriers when a majority of your people is stinkin’ poor?
indians becharay moon par sirf isleay jana chahtay thay k wahan par apni kuch abadi ko settle kar sakain aur phir agar wahan par koi choha mar jai tu Pakistan ko blame kar saktain k dekh lo duniya walo Pakistan ne chand par bhi nahi chorra hai humay. Magar kia keheay sahib yahan tu ulti hogai sab tadbeerain
there are many failed stories of Shining India , but afreen hai indian bhindian per ke apni defeat nahin mante
unka apna kehna hai na k PHIR BHI DIL HAI HINDUSTANI tu kaise apni defeat ko maan lain
q k kara indian bhindian ka
CHOTA SA DIL HAI CHOTI SE AASHA
humpak, mazak k ilawa agar hum dekhain tu indians zaydatar vegetarians hote hain. jab k study ne yeh clear kia hai k Halal meat na sirf health achi karta hai balkay yeh aap k behaviour k leay bhi bohat lazmi hai. study mae show kia gaya k jo log meat khatay thay woh log ikhalq aur zehan k achay pai gai jab k jo log meat nahi khatay thay unmae moral and social values ki kami pai gai.
ZH ka program Qurun e Oula dekh lo jitni bhi bari inventions hain woh sab muslims ne ki hain aur woh INDIANS nahi thay.
Muslims were far superior then anyone else in the fields of science and technology before the advent of renaissance. But afterwards it all started to decline partial because of invasions of Gengis and Halaku and partially Muslims relaxed by leaving all research and inventary work.
Plus muslims became dependent on their courts supervision for all type of works.
so many "failure news" coming out of India recently. The most recent one, being about their grenades. Pakistan ko failed state kehne wala, khud failures kee line laga raha hei.
^^ Lol...true that!
Imtiaz is tarah tu hota hai is tarah k kamo mae. Apna dagh chupanay k leay dosro par keechar uchalain gai tu yehi tu hoga.
“China will launch an attack on India before 2012. There are multiple reasons for a desperate Beijing to teach India the final lesson, thereby ensuring Chinese supremacy in Asia in this century,” Bharat Verma, Editor of the Indian Defence Review, has said.
Verma said the recession has “shut the Chinese exports shop”, creating an “unprecedented internal social unrest” which in turn, was severely threatening the grip of the Communists over the society.
Among other reasons for this assessment were rising unemployment, flight of capital worth billions of dollars, depletion of its foreign exchange reserves and growing internal dissent, Verma said in an editorial in the forthcoming issue of the premier defence journal. In addition to this, “The growing irrelevance of Pakistan, their right hand that operates against India on their behest, is increasing the Chinese nervousness,” he said, adding that US President Barak Obama’s Af-Pak policy was primarily Pak-Af policy that has “intelligently set the thief to catch the thief”.
Verma said Beijing was “already rattled, with its proxy Pakistan now literally embroiled in a civil war, losing its sheen against India.” “Above all, it is worried over the growing alliance of India with the US and the West, because the alliance has the potential to create a technologically superior counterpoise.
“All these three concerns of Chinese Communists are best addressed by waging a war against pacifist India to achieve multiple strategic objectives,” he said.
He said it would be “unwise” at this point of time for a recession-hit China to move against the Western interests, including Japan.
“Therefore, the most attractive option is to attack a soft target like India and forcibly occupy its territory in the Northeast,” Verma said. But India is “least prepared” on ground to face the Chinese threat, he says and asks a series of questions on how will India respond to repulse the Chinese game plan or whether Indian leadership would be able to “take the heat of war”.
“Is Indian military equipped to face the two-front wars by Beijing and Islamabad? Is the Indian civil administration geared to meet the internal security challenges that the external actors will sponsor simultaneously through their doctrine of unrestricted warfare? “The answers are an unequivocal ‘no’. Pacifist India is not ready by a long shot either on the internal or the external front,” the defence journal editor says. In view of the “imminent threat” posed by China, “the quickest way to swing out of pacifism to a state of assertion is by injecting military thinking in the civil administration to build the sinews. That will enormously increase the deliverables on ground – from Lalgarh to Tawang,” he says.
courtesy Times of India
NERVOUS CHINA MAY ATTACK INDIA
A leading defence expert has projected that China will attack India by 2012 to divert the attention of its own people from "unprecedented" internal dissent, growing unemployment and financial problems that are threatening the hold of Communists in that country.
"China will launch an attack on India before 2012. There are multiple reasons for a desperate Beijing to teach India the final lesson, thereby ensuring Chinese supremacy in Asia in this century," Bharat Verma, Editor of the Indian Defence Review, has said.
Source: Economic Times
on one hand india is craeting a scenario of chinese attack, plus planning to test new nukes, also putting blame and allegations on Pakistan.
On the other hand Afghanistan has a new govnt, pakistani president's 1 year completed, china recently faced a ethnic type situation, whole world is once again focusing on this region, in the presence of all this what is the large game plan ahead of India ? most probably increasing military strengh warfare etc.
MAY be just tp pressurize Pakistan & China
India ki misaal wohi hai k sher aya sher aya aur phir aik din waqai sher ajata hai. woh din InshAllah bohat jald aye ga jab India waqai safa e hasti se mit jai ga.
thats right but right now india is trying to gain support by making itself the most weakest and soft target of tyrant countries.
India hamisah yehi karta hai kaunsi nai baat hai.
aisa na hoo kay indian adhay raastay main so jain or un ke uran tashtri moon ke bajay sun kay safar par nikal jay ...................to phir kaya hoga ??????..........................
hulk bhai, sona tu door ki baat hai, unka uran khatola chanda mamoo k ird gird hie kahin ghaib hogaya hai
funny how the times of india article turns reality upside down:
1. the chinese economy is healthy despitethe big blow it took in the financial crises. It has major problem but can handle it due to its good economic policy.
2. China is not like US that it starts wars just to distract local population. Only US and other countires do that not China
3. Pakistan does not operate against india at behest of China. India operates in Pakistan at behest of US and Israel.
4.China is too worried about NATO and the west surrounding its borders and cutting of its trade routes, it cannot attack another country due to this problem.
5. Pakistan is not embroiled in civil war and has defeated Taliban and has been the best military operation in modern military history, They did something US Israel and India cannot dream of doing. Pakistan is growing militarily stronger. The indians cant control some of thier own areas. Thier military is curropt and cannot function properly.
6. India is not passive, but its aggressive and imperialist.
7. India already spends 30 billion dollars on defence while 70% of population is below poverty line making max 1 $ a day. Pakistan only spends 6 billion while Bangladesh spends 700 million and Sri Lanka a few billions. Only China spends 60 billion dollars. That makes you wonder who India wishes to confront in the future.
Bharat Verma is well known and is an idiot. He is the defence analyst in India and he lies a lot. One time i think he came on tv with Zaid Hamid, and Zaid Hamid gave him a good rebuttal and totally embarassed him.
toh phir india ki barkaein q nahin baand hoti hain ?
humpak..srry did not understand what u said..can u translate ur last comment to english??
Mustafa i was asking why india has not stopped behaving like this and has not stopped accusing its neighbours for nothing, on quite baseless issues
Becuase india does not want to...in order to achieve its objectives like the US it will have to continue drilling its propoganda into the minds of people. If enough people are convinced then they can achieve thier strategic and military objectives. If you repeat some things often enough people will believe it. That is how it works
then we should also practice the same thing when it comes to balochistan's issue, as india 's involvement is crystal clear but you know mustafa our minister sahib and govt is not willing to do it.
More Indian troops on China border
Is a repeat of the 1962 Sino-India war looming large? Though played down by the Indian government for diplomatic reasons, 30,000 additional troops – with weaponry and artillery support – are being rushed to the country’s northeast region bordering China. Indian troops deployed on the disputed border with China are also being reinforced, following the second incursion in the Ladakh region in the last eight months.
More worrisome for India is the Chinese claim on Arunachal Pradesh and repeated incursions into border villages and reports of a Chinese military exercise involving 50,000 troops in Tibet. A highway built by China parallel to the border, with approach roads intruding into Arunachal Pradesh, is also a matter of concern as it can be used by the Chinese Army to move quickly – with artillery – to capture parts of the state. Not taking these developments lightly, the Indian Army is preparing for any eventuality, putting the troops deployed on the border on operational alert and increasing vigilance in Arunachal Pradesh. A full mountain division of about 15,000 troops, under the command of three brigadiers, is being stationed in Arunachal Pradesh in areas where border fortifications may be weak. This division would be attached to the 4 Corps unit, based out of Tezpur in Assam.
Growing influence: A second division of the same strength is being deployed in Manipur and attached to the 3 Corps, based out of Dimapur in Nagaland. This division would be placed on the Bangladesh-India-Myanmar axis to counter any threat from China’s growing influence in Myanmar. Since raising new divisions takes a lot of time, sources said the Indian Army is pulling officers and troops out of peace-time postings from across the country to form the two divisions quickly.
Defence experts in India are already warning the government that China might resort to a 1962 war-style gamble, though maybe not on the same scale, to divert attention from rising inflation in the country. Writing in Defence Today, a strategic journal, editor Bharat Verma claimed that China might make the move as early as October. According to government sources, such a perceived threat has been already discussed by the army’s top brass, following which the decision to fortify all positions on the Sino-India border was taken.
cortesy Daily Times
Why Is India Downplaying?
By Javaid Iqbal Bhat
For once the past week gave a disturbing surprise to many of us. When the Pakistani border forces shoot a few bullets towards this side, Attari on Saturday night for example, not only does New Delhi burn with rage, the news reaches Washington DC, from where the telephone number of the Prime Minister of Pakistan is dialed asking him to rein in his wayward troops. And when the Chinese enter more than a kilometer into the Indian territory in Ladakh and engage in a sort of painting competition with the shepherds; and as experts like Brahma Chellaney of the Centre for Policy Research believe that the “India China border has become more hot than the India Pakistan border,” the Foreign Minister of India, Mr. S M Krishna does not agree. His belief is way off the general perception. Following the Ladakh intrusion he said that India and China are sharing the most peaceful relationship on the border. The near denial of the most recent incursion goes against the very truth of the matter. The fact is that China has resolved the boundary dispute with eight of her neighbors, only India is left out. Despite Treaties and Agreements since the Indo Sino war of 1962 a Cold Border War has never ceased. From April onwards in this year more than four hundred violations have been reported. These figures established even by the New York Times do not ruffle feathers in India. The Foreign Minister, along with his government, is maintaining a low profile on the issue. Even the hawkish opposition which went berserk on a few ambiguous words in the Sharmal Sheikh Agreement is mysteriously tight lipped. One feels tempted to ask what the reason behind this silence is. Why is the arbitrary and aggressive incursion being sidelined by the media? If mainstream Indian media is to be believed then it all quiet on “ one of the most continuously negotiated borders in modern history” as Mr. M Taylor Fravel, Associate Professor of Massachussets Institute of Technology and an expert on China’s borders ,calls the boundary between the two Asian neighbors. Sure there must be a ground for the intriguing downplaying. History has some pointers.
Soon after the Sino Indo brotherhood collapsed in the wake of the 1962 war, a Brigadier of the Indian army wrote a book. The book is named “Himalayan Blunder.” In this war Brigadier General John Dalve was captured alive by the Chinese troops. Once released, he exposed the nature of the war which eventually turned out to be one sided. Huge casualties were inflicted in the Indian side. The author was vilified and the book was immediately banned; for it brought to the fore the blunderous decision of going to war against a powerful neighbor. Since then the Indian mind, especially the governing class has preserved the lesson of not incurring the anger of the unforgiving dragon. Once the giant of a country like the People’s Republic of China is pricked the reaction is swift and harsh. That was an era when the difference in the military capability was not immense. It was also the time when the Chinese still favored the ancient mantra of “splendid isolation.”The guiding principle of the statecraft was not to harm anyone unless provoked in that direction. The Cultural Revolution of Mao had not yet come into its own. The country was more inward oriented. Mao had laid down the rule for his countrymen: “Hide your Capability, Bide your Time.”
Today the country wears a different design in mind. The world is realizing the increasing dependence on the booming economy of the Asian giant. The idea doing the round in impressive policy circles is that by 2050, China would match, if not supersede, the weight and potential of the United States of America. In the neighborhood it has managed to calm down the pestering countries. In Taiwan there is a friendly government in place, no more is it overly bent towards the United States. It has recognized the rising graph of China. Vietnam is working more on her economy than indulging in anti ?Dragon activities. Pakistan is a country with which “friendship goes deeper than the deepest ocean and higher than the Hindukush,” as an ex Foreign Minister of Pakistan affirmed. The Islamic Republic is coming handy in calming the rebellious nerves in the restive province of the Xinjiang. Inside the attention is on building and consolidating every sector of the country so that they remain harmonious with the growing profile of the country. And military is not an exception. There is a shift in the pattern of exercises as has been concisely pointed out by General Bakhshi. This year the People’s Army launched what it calls “Stride 2009.”The stride of the military goes all the way from Beijing to the border with India. It is this Stride which is generating an unusual amount of heat along the contentious Mc Mohan Line dividing the two countries and leaving behind the footprints on the rugged terrain of Ladakh.
Broadly the distinction is stark and clear. China is way ahead of the rest of Asia and growing, nay, leaping. A volcano is in the process of eruption; it is certain that it would produce a deafening noise. There are strong chances that the spreading lava would cover the surround regions. The growing stamina brings enough confidence to strut around without fear of reprisal. China is exactly on the point of eruption of this bourgeoning confidence. No more is there an anxiety to hide the capabilities and there is hardly any need to bide the time. Mao’s caution is given a go by, it belongs to the past; Wen Jiabo, the Chinese Premier, is looking outwards. He is revisiting the local and the global map to find out where the national interests are at risk. India is right there under the nose; there is Dalai Lama in Dharamshala, there is Tawang, there is Arunachal Pradesh and then there is the Aksai Chin; and an undemarcated long line of the Line of Actual Control. Above all India, piggybacking partly on US, is emerging as a competitor. Therefore the hot lava of the exploding volcano knows where to melt the rocks and gain the ground. And unlike the past, China is not “cultivating neighbors to contain India” as was underlined by Michael Yahuda, Professor of International Relations, London School of Economics.
India knows what it should do lest the Himalayan Blunder is repeated. China is not Pakistan that can be easily coerced into submission using the nice office of the United States. With a huge stake in the continuation of Stimulus Packages from China for reviving the sagging economy, America can ill afford to hit the shots on behalf of another country as it does in a convincing manner when it comes to Pakistan. The picture of China for India is not just big it is much bigger; China’s rise to superpowerdom is spectacular. It has arrived at a point where if compelled terms can be dictated to the adversary and not received. Therefore India is not downplaying because nothing serious has occurred on the border in Ladakh but it does understand the ramifications of taking it on in a battlefield. For that you do not need to be a seasoned diplomat trained in Harvard. It is pure commonsense. Mr. Chidambaram has a reason to take flight to America and hand over the wanted list of terrorists from Pakistan; S M Krishna has an even better reason to muffle the noise coming from Ladakh.
FIRING by the Indian forces across the international border on Friday
night was an incident of very serious nature, which could have led to
dangerous consequences, had Pakistani authorities not shown patience.
The Indians resorted to unprovoked firing when two rockets landed almost
two miles deep on their side of the Wagah border.
Pakistani authorities have categorically denied firing of any rockets from their side and even under diplomatic norms as and when there is an incident that is thoroughly checked before taking any action. However the sudden firing by the Indians speak of their bullying mindset to assert superiority and keep the neighbours under pressure. This action gives a clear message that Pakistan’s keenness for normalisation of relations and certain proposals mooted by its leadership to settle the thorny issue of Kashmir have gone abegging. There should be no doubt that the Indian designs are clear to all the neighbours that it wants to impose its hegemony and seeks the creation of a greater India. Unfortunately due to its large market economy, world leaders for obvious reasons, ignore its intervention and threatening postures towards small neighbouring countries. Despite the arrogance shown repeatedly by the Indian leadership, Pakistan is keen to have good relations and enhance its trade but we are not for lowering our guards in any case and must keep our minimum deterrence. The firing incident should be an eye opener for the US and British leadership who, without being well aware of the typical Hindu psyche, have been making statements that Pakistan does not face any danger from India but from the extremists and terrorists on the western border. There should be no doubt in any one’s mind that the Indians are hell-bent to force Pakistan for the trial of Hafiz Saeed on charges of the Mumbai terrorist attacks. However despite repeated demands, New Delhi has not been able to provide conclusive evidence that will stand up in a court of law against Hafiz Saeed and instead as pointed out by the Interior Minister, Pakistan is being provided the same material in a rehashed manner. In sheer frustration New Delhi could go to any extent and invent events to bring Pakistan under pressure like the incident of Friday. Therefore we would urge that though our economy is under strain, we need to continue with the up gradation and modernisation of our armed forces and keep the nation along to deter the bullying tactics of the neighbour.
Courtesy: Pakistan Observer
Hi hulk I m Abdul Basit.........main nain aj hi join kia hai
basit you r welcome here in pkkh forum but please be regular to post your opinions
India's first lunar mission has found evidence of large quantities of water on its surface, The Times newspaper reported on Thursday.
Data from the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft also suggests water is still being formed on the moon, the British newspaper said.
"It's very satisfying," the newspaper quoted Mylswamy Annadurai, the mission's project director at the Indian Space Research Organisation in Bangalore, as saying.
The newspaper said the breakthrough would be announced by the US National Aeronautic Space Agency on Thursday.
NASA's website says it will hold a media briefing at 1440 EDT on September 24 to "reveal new scientific findings about the moon" from data collected during national and international space missions.
Scientists said the breakthrough would change the face of lunar exploration.
The unmanned Indian craft was equipped with NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper.
Chalo tu chanda mama par Indians ne pani dhoond hie lia waise bhi India mae pani khatam ho raha hai. ab Indians chanda mama par jaa kar rehain gai
mission to fail ho gaya hai lakin pani mil gaya hai chalo Indian Bhindian aab Pakistan ka pani chor do.
chor kia do , zabardasti karna paray gi akhir ko SINDH WATER TREATY ki hai india se.
treaty per bhi ye haal hai , indian bhindian apni baat per stick nahin hote hain
hairat hain jab k bhindian tu sticky hoti hain
dekho ab new dialogue for water mein kia hota hai
before we all get too excited here, keep this piece of information safe in your heads, the water finding thing is going to be used by the Indians as pitching point everywhere, so make sure you remember this information. The chandrayan 1's sole mission was to orbit the moon and send data back to earth for 2 years. we all know that crashed after six months. The device on the Chandrayan 1 that has shown these wonders is called the M3, a device developed and contributed by NASA, and not ISRO! so this discovery is a credit for NASA not ISRO. Plus this is not the only spacecraft that has reported water, the Indian media, and their agents in the western media are making it look LIKE its the first and only detection. Cassini and Deep Impact spacecrafts have also reported presence of water on the moon.. Expect a barrage of arrogant and amplified media bomabardment from the media after this news has been published officially by NASA today.
Water traces on moon
Water particles have been detected on the surface of the
Moon by three missions, including an Indian probe.
The evidence, disclosed in new scientific papers, overturns the long accepted view that lunar soil is dry and comes just two weeks before a NASA probe is to crash into the surface near the Moon’s southern pole to see if water can be detected in the dust and debris released by the impact.
The new data was gathered by probes equipped with NASA instruments designed to map the Moon’s mineral composition.
The so-called “Moon Mineralogy Mapper,” or M3, uses the reflection of sunlight off the Moon’s surface to determine soil composition.
In one of the three papers published in the latest edition of the journal Science, researchers said they analyzed light waves detected by an M3 instrument on board an Indian satellite, Chandrayyan-1.
The reflected light waves indicated a chemical bond between oxygen and hydrogen—proof, the researchers said, of the existence of water on the Moon’s surface.
Larry Taylor of the University of Tennessee, one of the study’s co-authors, said the instrument is capable of detecting the composition of the thin upper layer of the Moon’s surface only to a depth of two or three inches.
Until now, scientists had advanced the theory that there might be ice at the permanently dark bottom of craters at the Moon’s poles but that the rest of the Moon was totally dry.
Lunar rocks and soil contain about 45 percent oxygen, but the source of the the hydrogen observed by the instruments on the three probes remains to be determined.
Taylor and his colleagues believe it may have come from an astronomical phenomenon called the solar wind, which consist mainly of streams of positively charged hydrogen atoms emitted as the sun undergoes nuclear fusion.
They estimate that each ton of lunar soil consists of 25 percent water.
Two other probes equipped with M3-type instruments also detected the chemical signature for the presence of water.
These include data gathered by the American spacecraft Cassini as it passed near the moon a decade agon on its way to Saturn.
The third probe, also American, was Deep Impact, which was launched toward the comet Tempel-1 in 2005 to pierce it with a projectile in order to analyze the dust cloud created by the impact.
Deep Impact passed near the Moon to gather data with an instrument similar to M3.
Samples of lunar rock and soil brought back to Earth by Apollo astronauts in the 1960s also contained traces of water.
But the containers in which they were transported were not hermetically sealed so researchers dismissed the presence of water as coming from the Earth.
“To some extent, we were fooled,” said Taylor, who has studied the original Apollo missions. “Since the boxes leaked, we just assumed the water we found was from contamination with terrestrial air.”
Indian scientists lost radio contact with the Chandrayaan-1 lunar satellite last month, but it had already collected enough data to provide the firmest evidence so far of water concentrated near the lunar poles.
“To find water on the moon was one of the main objectives,” mission director Mylswamy Annadurai told AFP in Bangalore. “The baby has done its job,” a clearly delighted Annadurai said. “It’s a major milestone, although we still have to quantify the findings.”
“It was a combined team effort and of great significance for international space cooperation,” he added.—
Courtesy: Pakistan Observer
Imtiaz thanku for sharing this information.
bicharey bhindians ek credit tha wo bhi khatam ho gaya
i know.. im speaking to some of these rats on youtube, and they are totally in denial about this thing... its bloody hilarious, how desperate they can get... loll
but how can they deny the fact which is on record , everybody knows when nasa found the traces of water on moon
humpak, indians tu saturday ko aik match haar chuke hain Pakistan se phir bhi kehte hain hum haray nahi hain q k hamary top k players nahi thay yeah tu phir history mae apna naam likhwana hai ..
actually indian bhindians ko deny kerne ki aadat ho gai hai , bicharey zahni bimaar ho gaey hain ab hum inko kia kahein, khush ho jane do, kuch loog khoot ke sahrey jina chatey hain, let them live in a fantasy
BTW agar ye mission fail ho gaya hai toh koi baat nahin, indians ko chahiye ke aik attempt aur karein aur ab ki bar apne saath tamam indians ko bhi le jaein phir hum pakistani inke haq mein dua karein gey ke inka mission chand ke bajay sooraj per land ker jaein aur kabhi wapas na aaye. phir hum empty neighbour plot per araam se rahein gey , sukh ki bansarri bajaein gey, plus indian bhindians ko bhi hamari ISI wahan bother nahin karey gi. Phir banaein gey indians dunya ki sab se bari quam jo science n technology mein apna koi sani nahin rekhti ho gi.
WOW what a wonderful idea i have for them.
humpak, apna itna best idea INDIANS ko kion nahi batati ho...tum ko tu devi bana kar tumhare naam ka mandar banain gai aur tumhari pooja karain gai
Kara kion meri akhrat kharab karaogi
nahi yar mae kion tumhari akhrat kharab karoon yeh tu mae inke baray mae bata rahi hon jo indian karte hain .